twelve jyotirliṅga
Just as the twelve jyotirliṅga (ज्योतिर्लिङ्ग) are twelve aṁśa (or varga) of śiva-jyoti (light of lord Shiva), so also the twelve signs represent the twelve aṁśa of the Sun god Sūrya. And just as the twelve signs divide the bha-chakra into parts, in turn, these signs are also divided to divulge more details.

Śloka 1

श्रुता ग्रहगुणास्त्वत्तस्तथा राशिगुण मुने।
श्रोतमिच्छामि भावानां भेदांस्तान् कृपया वद॥ १॥

śrutā grahaguṇāstvattastathā rāśiguṇa mune |
śrotamicchāmi bhāvānāṁ bhedāṁstān kṛpayā vada || 1||

Translation: Sage Maitreya addresses Maharṣi Parāśara:
O! Muni, you have taught the description, qualities and guṇa of the graha (planets) as well as those of the rāśi (Vedic signs). Kindly divulge the secret knowledge of the bhāva as I desire to hear about them.

Word Meanings [contributed by India Group]

śrutā – having heard/learnt
graha- planet
guṇā – qualities
tvattastathā- nature and
rāśiguṇa- qualities/potentials of houses/Vedic Signs.
mune -rishi
śrotamicchāmi- – I would like to hear
bhāvā- personality, becoming that, love of the world; becoming, arising, occurring, turning into, existence, endurance, state of being, continuance, condition, position, mental state, dis position, temperament; way of thinking, thought, opinion, sentiment, feeling; emotion (in rhetoric there are eight or nine primary Bhâvas corresponding to that number of Rasas or sentiments); supposition; meaning, affection, love; seat of the emotions, heart, soul; substance, thing; being, creature; discreet man, astrological house.
bhāvānāṁ – manifesting or teaching Veda.
bhedā – splitting, distinguishing, breaking, setting at variance, contradictory speech, expressed, give out, divulge, removing or dispelling ignorance etc.
amsa – part or division.
kṛpayā- mourn or lament, -consider, oblige
vada- to speak/tell


The word used is bhedāṁśtān which is composed of ‘bheda’ and ‘aṁśa’. Bheda in this context means secret (divulge, give out); aṁśa means division [other translations have used ‘अंस्’ (aṁs) as in अंस्तन् (aṁstan) which means shoulder and is quite meaningless in this context.

The word ‘bhāva’ refers to the bhāva chakra, especially the equal house division. However the divisions used are determined from the rāśi i.e. the signs and not the houses. Most astrologers think that the rāśi ‘alone’ is the bhāva due to this particular statement because bhāva or houses, by themselves, cannot be divided into aṁśa (parts) and must follow the divisions of the signs.

What Maitreya is telling us is that the various elements of the bhāva chart like lagna, horā, ghāṭikā and the graha are mapped into signs based on the division of the signs. The mapping of the variable elements like graha, various special ascendants and upagraha etc. into divisions called ‘varga’ creates another chart called ‘varga chakra’ which becomes the divulger of the secrets of the concerned bhāva.

The second important teaching is that the varga are linked to bhāva. For example the varga chakra called ‘Horā’ is linked to the dhana bhāva i.e. second house while the drekkāṇa, is linked to the bhrātṛ-bhāva (3rd house) and so on. None of the varga chakra can stand independently. They must be linked to one of the twelve bhāva of the rāśi-bhāva chakra. The key to unlocking the varga chakra lies in the bhāva it is concerned with.

This key is either based on (a) the division number or (b) application number.

  1. For example, a chart called Horā Chakra is also written as D2 chart and is created by dividing the sign into two parts. Here, both the nomenclature ‘D2’ and the division number ‘2’ (from 2 parts) shows that it links to the second bhāva of the rāśi chart. However, this may not be true in all cases. Both division number, nomenclature are the same and were used in the mapping of the varga to the bhāva.
  2. Another example – the varga chakra called ‘Trimśāṁśa’ is written as D30 chart. However, it is created by dividing the sign into ‘five’ unequal parts whereas the nomenclature ‘D30’ gives the sixth house. Whenever a number is greater than 12, we expunge multiples of 12. In this case 30-24=6 gives the sixth house of suffering and punishment. Trimśāṁśa maps to the sixth house showing that ‘nomenclature D30’ was used.
  3. Sometimes two houses are used in one varga chakra. For example the varga chakra called ‘dvādaśāṁśa’ meaning one-twelfth division is written as D12 Chart. Here both the division number and nomenclature refer to the number ‘12’ yet, this does not map to the 12th house of the bhāva chakra! Instead, it maps to two houses – the 4th house (of
    mother) and 9th house (of father). Whenever two houses are concerned we have some methods to find the ‘common ground’. Realize that mother and father are both independent individuals, yet they come together as ‘parents’ for the native. This common ground is determined in various ways. The one used for dvādaśāṁśa is to see (A) the 9th house (father) from 4th (mother) = 12th and (B) 4th house (mother) from 9th (father) = 12th. This common ground for the two – mother and father, is in the 12th house. The number 12 is called गौण (gauṇa)meaning mathematically determined bhāva based on counting each number from the other and also meaning subordinate or secondary (as it relates to the two working together as parents).
  4. In some advanced varga, this can also be determined by the span of the ‘aṁśa’. For example there is the Jagannāth drekkāṇa (also called nāḍi drekkāṇa) which is written as ‘D3J’ where D3 is drekkāṇa and ‘J’ is for Jagannāth. This is used to determine karma phala (10th house results). When we divide a sign of 30° into 3 aṁśa (parts), each part will measure 10°. Now the chart D3J is constructed in a different manner to give results pertaining to the 10th house (karma bhāva) and is mapped to 10th house of rāśi chakra instead of 3rd house.

Can you determine the key for the sixteen divisions?

Parāśara Other names Div Bh Re Area of Influence
kṣetra rāśi 1 1 D1 Body, Everything
horā horā 2 2 D2 Wealth, Food
dreṣkāṇa drekkāṇa 3 3 D3 Siblings
turyāṁśa caturthāṁśa 4 4 D-4 Fortune, Property
saptamāṁśa saptāṁśa 7 5 D-7 Children/Progeny
navāṁśa navāṁśa 9 7 D-9 Wife, Dharma
daśamāṁśa, dasāṁśa 10 10 D10 Karma
sūryāmśa dvādaśāṁśa 12 4,9 D12 Parents
ṣoḍaśāṁśa kālāṁśa 16 4 D16 Vehicles, Comforts
viṁśāṁśa viṁśāṁśa 20 8,12 D20 Spiritual Pursuits
vedavāhvaṁśa siddhāṁśacatur-vimśāṁśa 24 4,9 D24 Learning and Knowledge
bhāṁśa sapta-vimśāṁśanakṣatrāṁśa 27 3 D27 Strengths and Weakness
triṁśāṁśa triṁśāṁśa 30 6 D30 Evils
khavedāṁśa khavedāṁśa 40 4 D40 Maternal Legacy
akṣavedāṁśa akṣavedāṁśa 45 9 D45 Paternal Legacy
ṣaṣṭhyaṁśa ṣaṣṭiāṁśa 60 12 D60 Past birth or Karma


अथ षोडशवर्गाध्यायः॥
atha ṣoḍaśavargādhyāyaḥ ||

This is the chapter title. The word ‘atha’ is an auspicious and inceptive particle which has no English equivalent. It simply means ‘now’ as a reference to a sequence of teaching or time. It consists of two syllables
अ (a) which refers to Vasudeva [refer to creation concepts where we learn that the entire universe is an expansion of Vasudeva and a half of Vasudeva is perceptible universe while the other half is imperceptible. Thus, Vasudeva is called Jagannath, the lord of the universe.
थ (tha) means (1) a protector when there is a sign of danger (2) eating for the sake of preservation and (3) an auspicious prayer that removes every kind of fear

Thus, ‘atha’ refers to the action थ (tha) of अ (a) or Vasudeva protecting the teacher and the seeker of the knowledge. It reminds us to say the mantra ॐ नमो भगवते वासुदेवाय om namo bhagavate vāsudevāya which is the signature mantra of Veda Vyasa as taught in the puranas.


ṣoḍaśa means sixteen (16); varga means division or part (of life) and technically refers to the division of the Rashi; adhyāya means chapter

Maharṣi Parāśara advises us to study the sixteen divisions of the sign. Although there are many more divisions of the rāśi, what we are going to learn is the sixteen divisions only as they are the most important. This has a direct bearing on the sixteen kalā (rays of consciousness) of the mind. This fact or correlation between the ṣoḍaśa varga and the Chandra forms the basis for the Chandrakalā nāḍi (a nāḍi text of classical jyotiṣa). Only Śrī Kṛṣṇa was born with this complete strength of the mind which is why He is the Chandra avatāra of Viṣṇu in the incarnation.

So what then are really the ṣoḍaśa varga? They are the aspects of mental consciousness that work through five levels of consciousness.

Parāśara Nomenclature

The specific names used by Parāśara in describing the ṣoḍaśa varga are very important as they provide the clue to their study. There are other names for each of the varga which we will learn later.

D1 क्षेत्रं kṣetra D16 षोडशांश ṣoḍaśāṁśa
D2 होरा horā D20 विंशांश viṁśāṁśa
D3 द्रेष्काण dreṣkāṇa D24 वेदवाह्वंश vedavāhvaṁśa
D4 तुर्यांश turyāṁśa D27 भांश bhāṁśa
D7 सप्तमांश saptamāṁśa D30 त्रिंशांश triṁśāṁśa
D9 नवांश navāṁśa D40 खवेदांशो khavedāṁśa
D10 दशमांश daśamāṁśa D45 अक्षवेदांशः akṣavedāṁśa
D12 सूर्याम्श sūryāmśa D60 षष्ठ्यंश ṣaṣṭhyaṁśa
क्षेत्रं होरा च द्रेष्काणस्तुर्यांशः सप्तमांशकः।
नवांशो दशमांशश्च सूर्याम्शः षोडशांशकः॥ ३॥
kṣetraṁ horā ca dreṣkāṇasturyāṁśaḥ saptamāṁśakaḥ |
navāṁśo daśamāṁśaśca sūryāmśaḥ ṣoḍaśāṁśakaḥ || 3||
विंशांशो वेदवाह्वंशो भांशस्त्रिंशांशकस्ततः।
खवेदांशोऽक्षवेदांशः षष्ठ्यंशश्च ततः परम्॥ ४॥
viṁśāṁśo vedavāhvaṁśo bhāṁśastriṁśāṁśakastataḥ |
khavedāṁśo’kṣavedāṁśaḥ ṣaṣṭhyaṁśaśca tataḥ param || 4||


Students are required to
(1) memorize these names [no marks] (2) determine the meaning of sixteen names used by Parāśara for the divisional charts in not more than 10 words each.

Lord Śiva is the parameṣṭhi guru which means the ultimate guru and Vedavyāsa is the guru of all creatures on this planet. During the present duration of Kali Yuga, Kṛṣṇa Dvaipāyana the only son of Maharṣi Parāśara, is the vedavyāsa. Vedavyāsa is a title and not a name. This truth is valid even today and will be true for many yugas to come. Many people including many Hindu believe that Vedavyāsa is a name – unfortunately knowledge of śāstra has fallen to such levels.

Just like this you will come across many names which can be either that of an individual (like devatā, rākṣasa, manuśya, gandharva etc.) or a title conferred to one holding a certain position. If you are not sure, don’t hesitate to ask me in the forums, else you will always in doubt for the rest of your life!

Before seeking the knowledge of the seers, it is necessary to propitiate them with prayers and mantras. At this stage of your learning it is really not necessary to understand the meaning of each and every sound you utter as you will learn all this in good time. It is important to try to say the alphabets, words and sounds in the manner in which we say it. After every mantra or prayer you will find an audio file for the same that should play in any modern browser which has flash player updated in it.

There are fifteen stanza for this prayer to the Guru and every stanza has an audio file attached to it. Please play the audio and sing along LOUDLY so that you can start singing this hymn to the guru. This was among the first hymns I learnt as a child and even today I sing it from memory. Fifteen represents Guru Purnima, the full moon of the guru.

Stanza 01

आनन्दमानन्दकरं प्रसन्नम्‌ ज्ञानस्वरूपं निजभावयुक्तम्‌।
योगीन्द्रमीड्यं भवरोगवैद्यम्‌ श्रीमद्गुरुं नित्यमहं नमामि॥
ānandamānandakaraṁ prasannam jñānasvarūpaṁ nijabhāvayuktam |
yogīndramīḍyaṁ bhavarogavaidyam śrīmadguruṁ nityamahaṁ namāmi ||

Repeat this 10 times with me until you can articulate every word and memorize this prayer

Stanza 02

गुरुर्ब्रह्मा गुरुर्विष्णुर्गुरुर्देवो महेश्वरः।
गुरुरेव परं ब्रह्म तस्मै श्रीगुरवे नमः॥
gururbrahmā gururviṣṇurgururdevo maheśvaraḥ |
gurureva paraṁ brahma tasmai śrīgurave namaḥ ||

Repeat this 10 times with me until you can articulate every word and memorize this prayer

Stanza 03

अज्ञानतिमिरान्धस्य ज्ञानाञ्जनशलाकया।
चक्षुरुन्मीलितं येन तस्मै श्रीगुरवे नमः॥
ajñānatimirāndhasya jñānāñjanaśalākayā |
cakṣurunmīlitaṁ yena tasmai śrīgurave namaḥ ||

Repeat this 10 times with me until you can articulate every word and memorize this prayer

Stanza 04

अखण्डमण्डलाकारं व्याप्तं येन चराचरम्‌।
तत्पदं दर्शितं येन तस्मै श्रीगुरवे नमः॥
akhaṇḍamaṇḍalākāraṁ vyāptaṁ yena carācaram |
tatpadaṁ darśitaṁ yena tasmai śrīgurave namaḥ ||

Repeat this 10 times with me until you can articulate every word and memorize this prayer

Stanza 05

ज्ञानशक्तिसमारूढ तत्त्वमालाविभूषित।
भुक्तिमुक्तिप्रदाता च तस्मै श्रीगुरवे नमः॥
jñānaśaktisamārūḍha tattvamālāvibhūṣita |
bhuktimuktipradātā ca tasmai śrīgurave namaḥ ||

Repeat this 10 times with me until you can articulate every word and memorize this prayer

Stanza 06

मन्नाथः श्रीजगन्नाथो मद्गुरुः श्रीजगद्गुरुः।
ममात्मा सर्वभूतात्मा तस्मै श्रीगुरवे नमः॥
mannāthaḥ śrījagannātho madguruḥ śrījagadguruḥ |
mamātmā sarvabhūtātmā tasmai śrīgurave namaḥ ||

Repeat this 10 times with me until you can articulate every word and memorize this prayer

Stanza 07

श्रीमत्परं ब्रह्म गुरुं स्मरामि श्रीमत्परं ब्रह्म गुरुं भजामि।
श्रीमत्परं ब्रह्म गुरुं वदामि श्रीमत्परं ब्रह्म गुरुं नमामि॥
śrīmatparaṁ brahma guruṁ smarāmi śrīmatparaṁ brahma guruṁ bhajāmi |
śrīmatparaṁ brahma guruṁ vadāmi śrīmatparaṁ brahma guruṁ namāmi ||

Repeat this 10 times with me until you can articulate every word and memorize this prayer

Stanza 08

ब्रह्मानन्दं परमसुखदं केवलं ज्ञानमूर्तिम्‌
द्वन्दातीतं गगनसदृशं तत्त्वमस्यादिलक्ष्यम्‌॥
brahmānandaṁ paramasukhadaṁ kevalaṁ jñānamūrtim|
dvandātītaṁ gaganasadṛśaṁ tattvamasyādilakṣyam ||

Repeat this 10 times with me until you can articulate every word and memorize this prayer

Stanza 09

एकं नित्यं विमलमचलं सर्वधीसाक्षिरूपम्‌
भावातीतं त्रिगुणरहितं सद्गुरुं तं नमामि॥
ekaṁ nityaṁ vimalamacalaṁ sarvadhīsākṣirūpam
bhāvātītaṁ triguṇarahitaṁ sadguruṁ taṁ namāmi ||

Repeat this 10 times with me until you can articulate every word and memorize this prayer

Stanza 10

नमस्ते नाथ भगवन्‌ शिवाय गुरुरूपिणे।
विद्यावतारसंसिद्ध्यै स्वीकृतानेकविग्रह॥
namaste nātha bhagavan śivāya gururūpiṇe |
vidyāvatārasaṁsiddhyai svīkṛtānekavigraha ||

Repeat this 10 times with me until you can articulate every word and memorize this prayer

Stanza 11

भवाय भवरूपाय परमात्मस्वरूपिणे।
सर्वाज्ञानतमोभेद भानवे चिद्घनाय ते॥
bhavāya bhavarūpāya paramātmasvarūpiṇe |
sarvājñānatamobheda bhānave cidghanāya te ||

Repeat this 10 times with me until you can articulate every word and memorize this prayer

Stanza 12

स्वतन्त्राय दयाक्लृप्तविग्रहाय शिवात्मने।
परतन्त्राय भक्तानां भव्यानां भव्यरूपिणे॥
svatantrāya dayāklṛptavigrahāya śivātmane |
paratantrāya bhaktānāṁ bhavyānāṁ bhavyarūpiṇe ||

Repeat this 10 times with me until you can articulate every word and memorize this prayer

Stanza 13

विवेकिनां विवेकाय विमर्षाय विमर्षिनाम्‌।
प्रकाशिनां प्रकाशाय ज्ञानिनां ज्ञानरूपिणे॥
vivekināṁ vivekāya vimarṣāya vimarṣinām |
prakāśināṁ prakāśāya jñānināṁ jñānarūpiṇe ||

Repeat this 10 times with me until you can articulate every word and memorize this prayer

Stanza 14

पुरस्तत्पार्श्वयोः पृष्ठे नमस्कुर्यादुपर्यधः।
सदामच्चित्तरूपेण विदेहि भवदासनम्‌॥
purastatpārśvayoḥ pṛṣṭhe namaskuryāduparyadhaḥ |
sadāmaccittarūpeṇa videhi bhavadāsanam ||

Repeat this 10 times with me until you can articulate every word and memorize this prayer

Stanza 15

त्वत् प्रसादादहं देवं कृतकृतोस्मि सर्वदा।
मायामृत्योर्महापाशात् विमुक्तोस्मि शिवोस्मि च॥
tvat prasādādahaṁ devaṁ kṛtakṛtosmi sarvadā|
māyāmṛtyormahāpāśāt vimuktosmi śivosmi ca||

Repeat this 10 times with me until you can articulate every word and memorize this prayer

We must not forget that it was the Hindus who discovered what is known as the precession of the Equinoxes, and in their calculation such an occurrence takes place every 25,827 years. Our modern science, after labors of hundreds of years has simply proved them to be correct. …Count Viscount Cheiro
{tab=Time and Space}
Time and Space
Time and space are like endless rings without a beginning and without an end. The definition of the beginning of a linear time scale or the starting point of the Universe has been the vexed question of many a thinker and this thought leads the mind to a definition of God as being imperceptible. The great Vedic thinkers personified God as KalaPuruṣa1 and harmonized these two concepts of time and space into the four-dimensional model of Bhachakra (geocentric zodiac). Normally the Bhachakra is represented as a two dimensional figure for easy reading on paper, but the other dimensions of a dynamic linear time and the vertical declination of the planets were also examined and noted. Thus, the first and foremost point to bear in mind is that every division of the zodiac has a similar or matching division of time. As we study each of the divisions, we will also examine the time measure represented by it and will get additional clues to interpret results and delineate the effect of time on the division.
The division of the zodiac into twelve signs and twenty seven (or twenty eight Nakshatra) is the primary division in the paradigm of Vedic Astrology. Every now and then a new planet is seen and the doubts arise in the minds of the learned on the continued validity of the twelve sign zodiac. To clear these doubts, it is necessary to understand the basis of this primary division called Rāśi. The zodiac of 12 signs and 27 constellations was prepared by carefully observing the movement of the Sun and Moon in the geocentric model of the universe.
Rāśi – twelve Sun signs
The relative motion between the Sun & Moon shows that the Synodical Month (new moon to new moon or full moon to full moon) is 29D 12H 44M 3S = 29.53059D. Rounding off to the next higher integer we get 30 days during which, the average solar motion is 30 Degrees. Finally, dividing the Bhachakra of 360 degrees by 30, we get 12 signs, or the 12 sun signs as the Sun2 gets over-lordship of all signs being their pater. The twelve signs are Mesha (Aries), Vrisabha (Taurus), Mithun (Gemini), Karkata (Cancer), Simha (Leo), Kanya (Virgo), Tula (Libra), Vrischika (Scorpio), Dhanus (Sagittarius), Makara (Capricorn), Kumbha (Aquarius) and Meena (Pisces).
Figure 1: The Sun sign Zodiac

3charts 3charts2 3charts3
Sun Chakra | East India Venus ‘Diamond’ – North, West India Jupiter ‘Square’ Chakra – South India

Kendra (Quadrant)
The beginning of the zodiac was fixed based on the position of the sun on equinoxes i.e. when the days and nights are equally long and this was at the zero degree of Aries and Libra. In this manner, the four crucial points of the zodiac were determined as zero degrees of Aries, Cancer, Libra and Capricorn. The Rishi’s realized that there were actually two zodiac’s – one where the solar system could be considered as an independent system in itself and another in which the solar systems movement around another ellipse center called VISHNU-NABHI is also accounted for. These two zodiac systems are called Sayana (Tropical) and Nirayana (Sidereal) Bhachakra. The primary difference between the two being the motion of the solar system in the universe which is measured by the period of precession of the equinoxes – 25,800 years and when calculated from the point when the same is zero (i.e. sidereal and tropical zodiac coincide) is called Ayanāṁśa3. Now, the difference between the starting points of the two zodiac’s at any point of time is called Ayanāṁśa. In the concept of the Hindu calendar4 we realize that Varahamihira’s advocation of using the Suklanta Masa had a lot to do with the nomenclature of the Months on the basis of the normal Nakshatra position of the Full Moon and this determined the start of each lunar month (and not the Amanta Masa system as is in vogue in most of India today). In any case the star ‘Chitra’ was observed as the point of fixation and ‘Chitra Paksha’ referring to the opposite point from ‘Chitra5’ represents the beginning of the zodiac.

The basic point is that the zodiac was divided into four parts of ninety degrees each by the four points representing the beginning of Aries, Cancer, Libra and Capricorn and that these four points defined the four goals of human existence as (a) Dharma – righteousness and adherence to natural and societal principles (b) Moksha –Spirituality and emancipation from the cycle of rebirth, (c) Kaama – existence of desires and their fulfillment or denial as the cause of rebirth and (d) Artha – wealth. The four parts, on the other hand, divided the life into four ashrams, which form the foundation of Hinduism. This is also the concept in ‘Chatuspada6 Dharma’.

The Sankhya Śāstra teaches extensively about the Pancha Tatwa or the five forms of existence of all bodies. These forms of existence are (1) Prithvi (Solid state), (2) Jala (Liquid state), (3) Vayu (Gaseous state), (4) Agni (Energy state) and (5) Akash (ethereal or vacuum state). Vacuum permeates the entire universe and hence, the Akash Tatwa is present throughout the Bhachakra. The other four Tatwa were found to be in a predominant form in Aries (Agni), Cancer (Jala), Libra (Vayu) and Capricorn (Prithvi).
Trikona (Trine)
tri_naxIn a similar manner, the Trikona (trine) should also be understood as being the division of time into three aspects of past, present and future. Using (a) Manu Smriti statement that ‘a day in the life of the Gods is a year in human life’ we arrive at the basic equation of 1 Deg (=day motion of Sun) representing 1 year in Human life, and (b) Parāśara’s statement that the Param Ayus for human beings is 120 years, we arrive at the angle of 120 Degree representing the present life, next 120 deg representing the future and 120 degree representing the past. The span of 120 degrees of the zodiac covers 9 Nakshatra and thus, a group of nine Nakshatra before Janma (birth) Nakshatra represents the past, the group of nine from Janma represents the present while the remaining group of 9 represents the future.
For example, a person born in Satabhisāj nakṣatra (24) shall have this as his Janma nakṣatra (1). See adjoining image where Janma Nakṣatra Satabhisāj (1) is shown as the start of life. The nine nakṣatra from Satabhisāj to Mṛgāśiras (5) represent the present life – janma navtārā. The tenth nakṣatra reckoned from Satabhisāj is Ārdrā (6) which gets the special name of Karma Nakṣatra (10). It indicates the future being shaped by the karma we do in this life. The nine nakṣatra reckoned from Ārdrā (6) to Chitrā (14) represent the future. It includes our children and the generation following the native.
The nineteenth nakṣatra from janma nakṣatra is actually the tenth nakṣatra counted in the reverse. For Satabhisāj the 19th nakṣatra is Svātī (15) which gets the name of Anujanma nakṣatra. The nine nakṣatra from this to the one preceding the janma nakṣatra are in the immediate past. They also indicate the generation before the native like parents, elders and guru.
This three-fold division is very fundamental to Vedic Astrology and we have the three types of Chara (Movable), Sthira (Fixed) and Dwisbhava (Dual) signs. Since the three types are based on the original longevity equation of Parāśara (120 Deg = Full life), this is used in the most basic methods to estimate longevity.
Ritu – The Six seasons
rtuThe change of seasons formed the primary basis for the Hindu calendar where the year was divided into six seasons called Ritu. Rains were considered the blessings of the Gods and the rainy season was considered as that during which life came to this earth. This formed the principle behind determining the life giving portion of the zodiac as well as the concept of the coming down of the individual soul from the heavens above with the raindrops7. The distribution of the seasons in each Ayana, their extent in the zodiac and ruling planets are given in Table-1. Furthermore, the Ritu should be understood only from the solar months8 (i.e. Sun’s transit) and not the lunar months. Since the Sun was accepted as the cause of all seasons, it was natural to give the over lordship of the seasons to him.

Table 1 – Division of the seasons



Lord of Season

Sun signs covered



Varsha Rain Moon Cancer Moon
Leo Sun
Sarad Fall Mercury Virgo Mercury
Libra Venus
Hemanta Winter Jupiter Scorpio Mars
Sagittarius Jupiter


Sisira Cold Saturn Capricorn Saturn
Aquarius Saturn
Vasant Spring Venus Pisces Jupiter
Aries Mars
Grisma Summer Mars & Sun Taurus Venus
Gemini Mercury

The seasons are intricately connected to the veda as all knowledge comes from the five sensory faculties that are altered due to the influence of the six seasons. The six vedāñga (limbs of the veda) are Kalpa, Jyotiṣa, Vyākaraṇa, Śikṣā, Nirukta and Chandas. These are connected to the six vedic seasons reckoned from Vasanta (spring) that coincides with Vedic signs Pisces and Aries.

Kalpa means
a) a sacred precept, law, rule or ordinance
b) manner of acting, proceeding, practice (esp. that prescribed by the Vedas)
c) the most complete of the six vedāñga and that which prescribes the ritual and gives rules for ceremonial or sacrificial acts)
d) a fabulous period of time called a day of Brahma or thousand Yugas which equals a period of 4320 millions of years of mortals. It measures the duration of the world after which all creation is destroyed and rebuilt after an equally long period of hibernation. A month of Brahma contain thirty such Kalpa-days and twelve months of Brahma constitute his year. One hundred such years his lifetime. Fifty years of Brahma have elapsed, and we are currently in the 51st Brahma year of the śvetavārāha-kalpa. Kalpānta means the end following the end of the kalpa.
e) Refers to the first astrology house (Varāhamihira Bṛhat Saṁhitā) due to which the first house, called lagna, is associated with Brahma. This season (kalpa) is connected with both the first sign of the zodiac (showing Brahma) as well as the last sign of the zodiac (showing kalpanta, the end of the world) and therefore must be connected with Śiva as well.
f) Refers to Śiva (Mahabharata xii) He is the beginning of everything that ever began as well as the last that there will be when everything ends.
g) Kalpa-vṛkṣa is the tree of paradise

In this manner each of the vedāñga have various meanings and the study of their meanings shows their wide usage. Later we will learn about the Kalpa-druma yoga which associates with this kalpa-vṛkṣa, the celestial wish fulfilling tree and understand how this yoga completely revolves around the lagna.
Nakshatra – (Lunar Mansions)
Having divided the zodiac into 12 signs based on the Sun’s movement, it was necessary to also divide this into parts to study the effects of the movement of the Moon. Considered independently, the Moon takes 27D 7H 43M 11.5S to go around the earth. This is called the Sidereal month. Taking the integer 27 we get the 27 Nakshatra or Lunar Mansion (each 130 20’ of arc). Each Nakshatra was identified with a star, (or star cluster) and derived its name from it. The 7-¾ hour shortfall in a sidereal lunar transit was made up by a short-span intercalary (hypothetical) Nakshatra called Abhijit. The span of Abhijit is determined proportionally as (7h 43m 11.5s/ 24 hrs) x 130 20’ = 40 17’ 20″. This span is from 2760 40’ to 2800 57’ 20″overlapping the 21st Nakshatra (Uttarasadha). This becomes the 28th Nakshatra, which is used in some Chakra like the Kala Chakra and the Sarvatobhadra Chakra etc.

Table 2: Nakshatra – Lunar Mansion

Number Nakshatra Deity Planetary Lord-ship (Vimśottari) Pada3°20’ each Extent in Rāśi Rāśi
1. Aswini Aswini Kumar Ketu 4 13°20’ Aries (Mesh)
2. Bharani Yama Venus 4 16°40’
3. Krittika Agni Sun 1 30°
3 10° Taurus (Vrisabha)
4. Rohini Brahma Moon 4 23°20’
5. Mrigasira Chandra Mars 2 30°
2 6°40’ Gemini (Mithun)
6. Ardra Rudra Rahu 4 20°
7. Punarvasu Aditi Jupiter 3 30°
1 3°20’ Cancer (Karkata)
8. Pusya Brihaspati[9] Saturn 4 16°40’
9. Aslesha Sarpadeva[10] Mercury 4 30°
10. Makha Pitri[11] Ketu 4 13°20’ Leo (Simha)
11. Poorva Phalguni Bhaga Venus 4 16°40’
12. Uttar Phalguni Aryama Sun 1 30°
3 10° Virgo (Kanya)
13. Hasta Savitur[12] Moon 4 23°20’
14. Chitra Tvashta Mars 2 30°
2 6°40’ Libra (Tula)
15. Swati Vayu Rahu 4 20°
16. Visakha Mitra Jupiter 3 30°
1 3°20’ Scorpio (Vrischika)
17. Anuradha Saturn 4 16°40’
18. Jyestha Indra Mercury 4 30°
19. Moola Nirriti Ketu 4 13°20’ Sagittarius (Dhanus)
20. Poorva Ashada Jala[13] Venus 4 16°40’
21. Uttar Ashada Viswadeva Sun 1 30°
3 10° Capricorn (Makara)
22. Sravana Vishnu Moon 4 23°20’
23. Dhanista Asta Vasava[14] Mars 2 30°
2 6°40’ Aquarius (Kumbha)
24. Satabhisaj Varuna Rahu 4 20°
25. Poorva bhadrapada Ajaikapad Jupiter 3 30°
1 3°20’ Pisces (Meena)
26. Uttara bhadrapada Ahirbudhanya Saturn 4 16°40’
27. Revati Pooshan Mercury 4 30°

1 Kala- time, Purusha – God personified as Man. Hence, Kalapurusha is the personification of time as the ultimate representation of God.
2 Hence the name Rasi where Ra refers to the Sun God.
3 Different average rates of precession have been given for Ayanāṁśa, but the fact remains that Surya Siddhanta has been very close to the truth in using 24000 years!. The average rate is 360 Degrees divided by 25,800 years = 50.232558 seconds per year. Note also that the word is composed of ‘Ayana’ + ‘Āṁśa’ or literally, portion of the Ayana.
4 Refer appendix-1 for details.
5 Here we are referring to the Yogatara of Chitra.
6 Chatuspada literally means four feet and also refers to the sign Sagittarius which is the ninth house representing ones fortune or Bhagya. The four feet of Dharma are defined as the duty towards (a) Universe/Nation (b) Society (c) Family and (d) self in that decreasing order of importance. It is noteworthy that Parasara uses the term ‘Bhagya’ while referring to the Chaturthāṁśa’s results.
7 The Brhadaranyaka Upanishad explains the Karma theory with reference to the theory of Transmigration of the soul (sāṁśara). The pious and good souls who have lived a dharmic life depart for the abode of the forefathers and other such loka. After a period of temporary bliss, they move on to emptiness via the Moon. From emptiness, they descend to the earth with the rain and enter the food that is consumed by the prospective father. From the food they become spermatozoa and are offered to the prospective mother in the altar of fire (copulation). Then the birth occurs. The Upanishad adds that the unrighteous are incarnated as birds, insects, animals or plants on the basis of the Karma of the past lives. It is generally taught that conduct and adherence to the moral code determined these changes. Thus good karma would promise an exalted future while bad karma will tend to degrade the soul in the lines of ‘ as you sow so will you reap’. This doctrine of Karma (literally “action”) provides a very satisfactory explanation for the various social inequalities that exist as well as the troubles or grief that one faces as it is the result of one’s own acts or misdeeds in the past. These Karma are divided into two categories called Sanchita and Prarabdha. The results of Sanchita Karma will be exhausted in the various heavens and hells after death whereas only experiencing them can lessen the results of Prarabdha Karma. Thus, it is this Prarabdha Karma, which is the cause of rebirth.
8 indicated by Mukunda Daivagyna in Nasta Jataka
9 Jupiter
10 Snakes ruled by Rahu
11 Pitri refers to the forefathers and when the Sun is in this place, in the Krishna Paksha (called Pitri Paksha), the devout Hindu worships the manes and forefathers.
12 Others – Vishwakarma, Aditya etc.
13 Water personified as the protector
14 Vasudeva

Sarbani Rath
JSP India
Head of SJC
15B Gangaram Hospital Road, New Delhi 110060, India

Bio: Born on the Thirtieth day of June 1962 in Calcutta, India at seventeen minutes past midnight, to very pious parents Ashoke Kumar Sarkar and Aloka, who were the third generation in the Sarkar family directly associating with the Ramakrishna order. Sarbani had the good fortune of associating with the saṅnyāsins of the Śrī Sāradā Math from birth. When only four years old she learnt how to make the Śiva Liñga with mud from the banks of the Gaṅgā and worship with sixteen offerings (ṣoḍaśa upacāra), mantra and mudra. The grace of Holy Mother Śrī Sāradā Ma flowed as she learnt Sanskrit and vedic literature including purāṇa and various spiritual practises directly from the Math.

Formal education at Loreto House School ensured a healthy balance between traditional vedic learning and modern English public school. She graduated in Political Science from Presidency College in 1985. She completed her Masters degree from University of Calcutta in 1987.

In 1987 she moved to Delhi to work as a social scientist specialising in environmental law and policy, history of conservation, the concept of the nation state and human rights. Based at the Centre for the Study of Developing Societies (CSDS), the Indian Institute of Public Administration (IIPA) and later at the World Wide Fund for Nature-India (WWF-India), Delhi she worked closely with grassroots organisations, academics, lawyers and judges particularly in the area of national parks and sanctuaries and the conflict area between wildlife and the livelihood rights of forest dwellers. She has taught as a guest lecturer at the M.Sc. programme in Environmental Biology, University of Delhi and at the graduation programme at the National Institute of Design (NID), Ahmedabad.

Sarbani - Foundation An intense teacher @SJC Singapore, 2004
Her childhood passion for vedic astrology and other occult sciences like I-Ching and the Tarot led her to gradually move fulltime into this field of work. She was a professional Tarot Reader for 12 years in the 1990’s with a large collection of Tarot Decks, although she primarily used the Crowley and the Rider-Waite decks for her readings. The turning point was in 1998 when Bṛhat Parāśara Horā Śāstra became the principal book on her table. She has been exclusively studying and practicing Jyotiṣa under the able guidance of Pt. Sanjay Rath. After receiving the Bṛhaspati Gāyatrī in 2002 she has been practising jyotiṣa professionally and teaching as a Jyotiṣa Guru of Śrī Jagannāth Center (SJC). She went on to be the President of SJC in 2008. She continues her passion of reading Vedic literature and after finishing a thorough study of the Garuḍa Purāṇa, is currently working on Sāradātilaka Tantra and Skanda Purāṇa.
L-R: B.Lakshmi Ramesh, Sarbani Rath, Komilla Sutton
In 2011 she successfully completed the 5-year long Jaimini Scholar Programme (2007-11) and is a certified Jaimini Scholar of the First Himalaya Batch of Devaguru Bṛhaspati Center (DBC). On the directions of the DBC-Institute she is currently a teacher and Course Co-ordinator of the 2nd Himalaya Batch of the Jaimini Scholar Programme. As the Managing Editor of Sagittarius Publications, she oversees the publication of the quarterly jyotiṣa journal The Jyotish Digest and other astrology books. She has presented papers at various Jyotish conferences in India, USA, London and Serbia. She is a member of the British Association of Vedic Astrology (BAVA).
[contact-form to=’’ subject=’PJC Contact’][contact-field label=’Name’ type=’name’ required=’1’/][contact-field label=’Email’ type=’email’ required=’1’/][contact-field label=’Comment’ type=’textarea’ required=’1’/][/contact-form]

Pt.Sanjay Rath
Sanjay Rath belongs to a traditional family of astrologers from Bira Balabhadrapur Sasan village of Puri, Orissa, which trace their lineage back to Shri Achyuta Das (Sri Achyutananda).
Students: sanjay.rath@...


  • Nitin Bhanap +19195392537 Nitin Bhanap is an IT professional turned Vedic astrologer by the grace of Guruji (Pt. Sanjay Rath). Nitin is originally from Bombay, Maharashtra and now based in Raleigh USA. Nitin comes from a family of astrologers and Jyotiṣa was part of his early life because of his father and grandfather who had a career in corporate world, however practiced Jyotisa to help and guide people. Nitin pursued his interest in Jyotisa by reading many books, however after meeting Guruji (Pt Sanjay Rath), at the Someshwara Shiva temple prāṇa pratiṣṭhā in Ashveille NC, USA, Nitin found his Jyotiṣa Guru (Pt. Sanjay Rath). Nitin’s early life was spent in boarding school and then in Mumbai, where he completed his Master’s in Mathematics and then left for USA at the age of 23 to pursue career in IT and is still living in USA with his wife and one daughter. Nitin worked for many large corporations in USA and now has taken up Jyotisa seriously by volunteering to leave his professional career at Verizon to pursue Jyotisa studies further under guidance of Guruji (Pt. Sanjay Rath). Nitin joined Parāśara 5-year course under tutelage of Pt. Sanjay Rath in 2012 and completed his Jyotisa Paṇḍita certification in 2016 and now in the 3rd year of Jaimini Jyotisa under Pt. Sanjay Rath. Nitin has also currently enrolled Mantra Shastra course and continuing pursuing his Jaimini studies. Nitin continues to practice Jyotisa by guiding many young and middle-aged adults about their careers, marriage, children and many other areas of life. Nitin does the Jyotiṣa practice as an offering to Mahadev as Shiva is Parameṣṭhi Guru and the ocean of all knowledge Nitin is also learning Advaita Vedanta from Chinmaya mission and is currently serving as President of Chinmaya mission Raleigh Durham. As a part of Chinmaya mission, Nitin teaches Vedanta to young high school children on Sunday’s and organizes many spiritual discourses on Vedanta by inviting Chinmaya mission Swamiji’s from different US centers as a part of his seva to the Raleigh Durham community

  • Kaartik Gor +971555532511 Kaartik Gor is a professional Vedic Astrologer, originally from Somnath, Gujarat and now based in Dubai. Kaartik comes from a family of priests and Jyotiṣa was part of his life since early days though he got interested after meeting his Gurudev. His early life was spent in Gujarat and later Mumbai where he completed his Engineering and later worked with corporate giants in their Sales and later as a Project Manager in Mumbai & Dubai. He later migrated to Dubai in 2002 and is now based there, though he consults and teaches globally via his webinar, conferences and personal contact classes. He also writes for leading publications and was instrumental in many positive changes related to Vedic scriptures in the GCC region. Kaartik Gor considers himself to be very fortunate and takes pride to be amongst the first direct students of his Gurudev (as he like to address him) Pt. Sanjay Rath. He strongly feels “Knowledge is Shiva” and takes pride in being associated with a tradition which dates back to 2500 years! He strongly feels that Jyotiṣa is his road to attain moksha since it gives him an opportunity to heal souls and make his life worthwhile. Teaching Jyotiṣa is something he enjoys a lot and being a young Turk likes to make it easy for Beginners to understand and implement the knowledge in their day to day life. He is a firm believer that knowledge should be applicable else its waste of time! Kaartik has been part of all major programs conducted by his Gurudev and has been associated with him for approx. 2 decades during which he is now a Jaimini Scholar, Jyotiṣa Pandita (Brihat Parashara Hora Shastra), Mantra Shastra among others. He still likes to call himself a Beginner and strongly advocates what his Gurudev told him “Knowledge is an Ocean, Start Swimming”. He truly believes that best Gurus are those who make best friends and likes to be grounded and approachable. His mission is to spread this brilliant Vedic knowledge globally and work tirelessly to achieve it, no mood to rest On a personal note he loves taking care of Cows and does his bit for them. He also loves music, singing, watching movies and playing squash!